For example, rice, which is a silicon hyper-accumulator, can have as much as 10% of its tissue dry weight be silicon. Studies have shown that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can reduce the performance of typically detrimental root feeding insects, yet the mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, a gene encoding a Si uptake transporter in rice, a typical Si-accumulating plant, was isolated. However, few studies focus on the effects of Si on plant growth during the propagation stage of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Duchesne). However, research on this process in grassland ecosystems is scarce, despite the fact that these ecosystems are one of the most significant … Increases in cell wall thickness are characteristic of silicon integration in the cell wall in most of high silicon‐accumulating plants (Kumar, Soukup, & Elbaum, 2017; Marschner, Oberle, Cakmak, & Römheld, 1990). Silicon (Si) accumulation differs greatly between plant species because of differences in Si uptake by the roots. At high concentrations, silicon significantly increased cell wall thickness of the nodules. The beneficial effects of Si are mainly associated with its high deposition in plant tissues, enhancing their strength and rigidity. Silicon (Si) accumulation differs greatly between plant species because of differences in Si uptake by the roots. Silicon (Si) in a chemically combined form is ubiquitous in nature. In order to understand the role of silicon in plant nutrition, it is useful to first understand the differences between some similar-sounding terms – silicon… Silicon accumulation in different plant tissues, such as root, stem, leaves, and hulls, can preserve the plant from abiotic and biotic stresses . Recently, a gene encoding a Si uptake transporter in rice, a typical Si-accumulating plant, was isolated. Although silicon (Si) has not been recognized as an essential element for plant growth, the beneficial effects of Si have been observed in a wide variety of plant species. Plants’ major defense mechanisms to adjust to heavy metal stress and to protect plant cells from oxidative stress are scavenging free radicals by ROS. Silicon is recently becoming recognized as a beneficial plant nutrient and many growers already include it in their crop fertility programs. The beneficial effects of Si are usually expressed more clearly in Si-accumulating plants under various abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Grasses are hyper-accumulators of silicon (Si), which they acquire from the soil and deposit in tissues to resist environmental stresses. The beneficial effects that silicon (Si) has on plant growth as well as resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses have been well documented for many crops in recent years. INTRODUCTION. Using Brachypodium distachyon, we hydroponically manipulated Si-supply (0.0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 mM) and grew plants under Miocene (200 ppm) and Anthropocene levels of CO2 comprising ambient (410 ppm) and elevated (640 ppm) CO2 concentrations. Silicon (Si) plays an important role in improving soil nutrient availability and plant carbon (C) accumulation and may therefore impact the biogeochemical cycles of C, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) in terrestrial ecosystems profoundly. Plants can either be silicon accumulators or silicon rejecters, which refers to the amount of silicon that accumulates in the tissues of the plant. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different sources of AM inocula on plant resistance to a root feeding insect in two different soils with different silicon (Si) concentrations. It is, however, unknown how pre-industrial CO2 concentrations affect Si accumulation in grasses.