For example, the following is a paraphrase from an essay by Naomi S. Baron: Literacy consists of both reading and writing. Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment (PDQ®) – Health Professional Version. I know with in-text citation you can just place one right after each fact you need to cite, but I'm not sure if this is how you use footnotes. Therefore, putting one citation at the end of a paragraph paraphrase is NOT APA compliant. Baron, Naomi S. “Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media.”, Ask the MLA. 5" " • If citing more than one source by the same author, do not repeat the author’s surname; just cite the sources chronologically, separated by a semi-colon, e.g. 128, no. Solution: Use a lead-in at the beginning of your paragraph. My question is, if I get multiple facts from the same source, when/where do I place the footnote? Note: If a signal phrase or lead-in phrase states the authors in the text of the sentence, you only need to put the year in parentheses. Available for fall 2020 and spring 2021 courses. The first time you use the source in the paragraph as part of the sentence, give the citation of the author’s name... 2. Be the first to read new posts and updates about MLA style. If you are citing the same source several times within the same paragraph, use the following APA guidelines: Sentence-level in-text citation guidelines. Was this helpful? “If my paraphrase consists of several sentences, should a citation for the original source appear after each sentence?” MLA Style Center, 12 April 2018, Here's an explanation and example using MLA style, from the MLA Style Center website: "The citation should appear only after the final sentence of the paraphrase. blah blah blah (Smith, 2013). But the NCI also says that metastatic brain tumors, which spread to the brain from other cancer sites like the lungs and breasts, happen ten times as often as primary ones that start in the brain (2019). Read your sentences carefully to ensure you have cited sources appropriately. By varying your sentence structure, you can create flow in paragraphs where you cite one author multiple times. 8th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016. This also helps differentiate your own ideas from those in your references. If it is clear, you don't need to repeat the in-text citation for those sentences. They found that almost 61% of the teenagers they studied were abused by a relative, and 23.8% were chronically abused. 2. The general idea is to cite the source once at the beginning and once at the end. An in-text citation usually appears immediately after the quotation or paraphrase in question. APA also has a format for citing multiple pages that correspond to one reference. Below are different ways to format and cite a paraphrase: 1. The writing might take the form of marking up a text or making notes about it (Baron 194). cit. You can alternate this with putting the in-text cite in parentheses at the end of other sentences or the paragraph. Depending upon the source, subsequent citations may differ from the first. McLean, C. P., & Morris, S. H. (2014). In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed b… Use a new number each time you include a new quote or paraphrase, even if you use only one or two sources. Examples: (Smith 42; Bennett 71). The best way to solve this problem and still make your paper easy to read is to use a lead-in referring to your source at the beginning of a sentence or at the start of the paragraph (signal phrase). Basically, introduce the source you are summarizing or paraphrasing at the beginning of the paragraph and then refer back to the source when needed to ensure your reader understands you are still using the same source. Author–Date Citations. The writing might take the form of marking up a text or making notes about it (194).". As the MLA Handbook notes, “[W]hen an entire paragraph is based on material from a single source,” you might “define a source in the text at the start” (125). National Cancer Institute. 1–5’). You can do this by incorporating effective signal phrase strategies, using paraphrasing, and by using direct quotes. The first reference used in a written document is listed as 1 in the reference list, and a 1 is inserted into the document immediately next to the fact, concept, or quotation being cited.