[29], The hypodescent social construction related to the racial caste that was associated with African slavery and the conditions of the slave societies. The overwhelming majority of African immigrants (~95%) identified instead with their own respective ethnicities. When responding to the race question on the census form, each person is asked to choose from among the same racial categories as all Americans, and are included in the numbers reported for those races.[28]. Most of the non-European admixture was concentrated in 30% of the sample, with West African admixture ranging from 2 to 20%, with an average of 2.3%. [92][93] Though Middle Eastern American communities can be found in each of the 50 states, the majority live in just 10 states with nearly "one third of the total liv[ing] in California, New York, and Michigan". During and after Reconstruction, after the emancipation of slaves after the Civil War, in the effort to restore white supremacy in the South, whites began to classify anyone with "one drop" of "black blood", or known African ancestry, to be black. The political economy of race had different consequences for the descendants of aboriginal Americans and African slaves. But, others (such as the historians Joel Williamson, C. Vann Woodward, George M. Fredrickson, and Stetson Kennedy) considered the one-drop rule a consequence of the need to define Whiteness as being pure, and justifying White-on-Black oppression. [30], In the United States, social and legal conventions developed over time by whites that classified individuals of mixed ancestry into simplified racial categories (Gossett 1997), but these were always porous. [citation needed] In the 2000 census, self-identified German Americans made up 17% of the U.S. population, followed by Irish Americans at 12%, as reported in the 2000 U.S. Census. But the colonists put Africans outside the category of English subjects. While minority populations do continue to grow, America is not quite the racial melting pot that some commentators make it out to be. [10], White Americans are the majority in every census-defined region (Northeast, Midwest, South, West) and in every state except Hawaii,[8] but contribute the highest proportion of the population in the Midwestern United States, at 85% per the Population Estimates Program (PEP)[4] or 83% per the American Community Survey (ACS). (Mays et al. African Americans escaped from slavery, sometimes via the. [12] 30.5% identified as "some other race" (other than the ones listed). [86][87], The legal and official designation of who is Native American has aroused controversy by demographers, tribal nations, and government officials for many decades. BLS, "Labor law highlights, 1915–2015" (Oct 2015). Race – Universe: Total Populatoon", "B03002. The 20th-century one-drop rule made it relatively difficult for anyone of known Black ancestry to be accepted as White. [14], Their histories are diverse. The least populous of the compared places has a population of 383,899. [73] It includes people who are of full or partial Hispanic or Latino origin. These images display frequencies of self-reported European American ancestries as of the 2000 U.S. Census. [5] In the official estimates, Black or African American Hispanics are the second-largest group, with 1.9 million, or 4.0% of the whole group. It includes people who may have been considered racially distinct (Black, White, Amerindian or other mixed groups) in their home countries. The non-Hispanic white percentage of the 50 states and District of Columbia (60.1% in 2019[43]) has been decreasing since the mid-20th century as a result of changes made in immigration policy, most notably the Hart-Celler Act of 1965, and also a continuous flow of illegal migration of peoples across the Mexican border [citation needed]. Race and ethnicity in the United States is a complex topic because the United States of America has a racially and ethnically diverse population. AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE ALONE OR IN COMBINATION WITH ONE OR MORE OTHER RACES", "The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States", "White? This section compares the 50 most populous of those to each other and the United States. Ethnicity list for the US states - Learn about the distribution of different ethnicities in each state such as English, Italian or West African, and discover your origins with MyHeritage DNA! The 19th-century blood quantum rule meant that it was relatively easier for a person of mixed Euro-Amerindian ancestry to be accepted as White. Suggested Grade Level: 8–12. [74] For decades it has contributed significantly to U.S. population increases, and this is expected to continue. "[33] Like all official U.S. racial categories, "White" has a "not Hispanic or Latino" and a "Hispanic or Latino" component,[34] the latter consisting mostly of White Mexican Americans and White Cuban Americans. As of 2010, American Samoa's population was 92.6% Pacific Islander (mostly Samoan), Guam's population was 49.3% Pacific Islander (mostly Chamorro), and the population of the Northern Mariana Islands was 34.9% Pacific Islander. [6] The Census also asked an "Ancestry Question," which covers the broader notion of ethnicity, in the 2000 Census long form and the American Community Survey; the question will return in the 2020 Census. The United States is a racially diverse country. This practice was gradually replaced by the system of race-based slavery used in the Caribbean. The least populous of the compared places has a population of 71,732. Future of Security: From disinformation to deep fakes: protecting critical infrastructure and personal data in a rapidly changing threat environment. [96][97], The United States Census Bureau is presently finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. In short, this theory suggests that in a 20th-century economy that benefited from sharecropping, it was useful to have as many Blacks as possible. The child of an African-American sharecropper and a White person was considered Black by the local communities. [94] More Middle Eastern Americans live in California than any other state, with ethnic groups such as Arabs, Jews, Persians, and Armenians being a large percentage, but Middle Eastern Americans represent the highest percentage of the population of Michigan. While some Americans can trace their ancestry back to a single ethnic group or population in Europe, Africa, or Asia, these are often first- and second-generation Americans. On the other hand, the same individual who could be denied legal standing in a tribe, according to the government, because he was "too White" to claim property rights, might still have enough visually identifiable Amerindian ancestry to be considered socially as a "half-breed" or breed, and stigmatized by both communities.