Orlin, Eric M., "Foreign Cults in Republican Rome: Rethinking the Pomerial Rule". Venus Caelestis is the earliest known Roman recipient of a taurobolium (a form of bull sacrifice), performed at her shrine in Pozzuoli on 5 October 134. Like many other treasured antiquities, the story behind the statue was entirely unknown when it was unearthed in the 19th century. [33][34], In 217 BC, in the early stages of the Second Punic War with Carthage, Rome suffered a disastrous defeat at the battle of Lake Trasimene. [38], The Capitoline cult to Venus seems to have been reserved to higher status Romans. In the later classical tradition of the West, Venus became one of the most widely referenced deities of Greco-Roman mythology as the embodiment of love (not desires, seeking answers or truth) and sexuality. The two goddesses both grew enamored with the mortal, so they fought until Zeus decided that Adonis would spend one-third the year with each of them and a third wherever he pleased. Virgil, in compliment to his patron Augustus and the gens Julia, embellished an existing connection between Venus, whom Julius Caesar had adopted as his protectress, and Aeneas. [27], Venus Obsequens ("Indulgent Venus"[28]), Venus' first attested Roman epithet. She was the Roman counterpart to the Greek Aphrodite. She is addressed as "Alma Venus" ("Mother Venus") by Lucretius in the introductory lines of his vivid, poetic exposition of Epicurean physics and philosophy, De Rerum Natura. Another reference to Venus is from Billy Idol's album "Cyberpunk" , in track # 16 titled "Venus". Ovid uses acidalia only in the latter sense. It was dedicated in 295 BC, at a site near the Aventine Hill, and was supposedly funded by fines imposed on Roman women for sexual misdemeanours. Vinalia Rusticia was held on August 10th. Relating back to the original iuvenis which literally means youth, the name Venus could very well be related to both Iove and a derivative of Iuvenis, the literal origin of the words Love and Youth (or desirability) themselves. ", The widely spaced, open style preferred by Vitruvius is, The origin is unknown, but it might derive from, Carter, Jesse Benedict, "The Cognomina of the Goddess 'Fortuna,'", Olivier de Cazanove, "Jupiter, Liber et le vin latin", Revue de l'histoire des religions, 1988, Vol. [citation needed]. The nude figure is a universal visual theme, deeply rooted in the... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Venus has been described as perhaps "the most original creation of the Roman pantheon",[7] and "an ill-defined and assimilative" native goddess, combined "with a strange and exotic Aphrodite". Venus was married. In Virgil's Aeneid, the Trojan hero Aeneas is led to Latium by his mother in her celestial form: the evening star. It was sited somewhere near the Aventine Hill and Circus Maximus, and played a central role in the Vinalia Rustica. In some Latin mythology, Cupid was the son of Venus and Mars, the god of war. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Images of Venus have been found in domestic murals, mosaics and household shrines (lararia). It was this foreign image that eventually became Rome's Venus Genetrix (Venus the Mother). Varro rationalises the connections as, "The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome", v. 1, p. 167. Ancient etymologies associated Juno's name with iuvare, "to aid, benefit", and iuvenescere, "rejuvenate", sometimes connecting it to the renewability of the moon cycle. During her rites, her image was taken from her temple to the men's baths, where it was undressed and washed in warm water by her female attendants, then garlanded with myrtle. The Latin name Venus ('love, charm') stems from Proto-Italic *wenos- ('desire'), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European (PIE) *wenh₁-os ('desire'; compare with Messapic Venas, Old Indic vánas 'desire'). [66] Before its adoption into Venus' cults, myrtle was used in the purification rites of Cloacina, the Etruscan-Roman goddess of Rome's main sewer; later, Cloacina's association with Venus' sacred plant made her Venus Cloacina. Venus is ascribed as the mother of the minor deity Priapus (a fertility god often characterized with an absurdly large phallus) by Bacchus. Eden, P.T., "Venus and the Cabbage" Hermes, 91, (1963) p. 456. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.