The concept is commonly used when evaluating which of two (or more) investments to make in a business. Content Filtrations 6. Past costs, also known as sunk costs, are not relevant in decision making because they have already been incurred; therefore, these costs cannot be changed no matter which alternative is selected. Without this review process, all elements of planning, control and coordination with respect to the firm’s goals are lost, which again is detri­mental to the firms long-range survival. Whitehall uses the units-of-production method to allocate joint costs. Differential analysis also called incremental analysis is a management accounting technique in which we examine only the changes in revenues costs and profits that result from a business decision instead of creating complete income statements for each alternative. Examples of Incremental Analysis Incremental analysis , sometimes called marginal or differential analysis, is used to analyze the financial information needed for decision making. Expected future sales and market potential not favourable. The company has been operating at 75% of normal capacities and in the foreseeable future no use for the excess capacity is contemplated except for the possible production of the part. All business decisions should not be evaluated in the same way. If these assumptions are not true, new analysis must be made. 1. Ignore the Constants. The morale of other employees, as well as company goodwill, may be adversely affected, and the recruiting and training of replacement workers that must be incurred when the facility is later reopened, add to costs. The sales revenues for each alternative and the costs that differ between alternatives are the relevant amounts in these decisions. Care must be taken not only to consider the profitability of the product being analyzed but also to evaluate the extent to which sales of other products will be adversely affected when one product is removed. If you have a decision to run a fully automated operation that produces 100,000 widgets per year at a cost of $1,200,000, or of using direct labor to manually produce the same number of widgets for $1,400,000, then the differential cost between the two alternatives is $200,000. An important factor in the decision to add or drop a product is whether it will increase or decrease the future income of the business. It identifies the relevant revenues and/or costs of each alternative and the expected impact of the alternative on future income. Sometimes special orders or one time orders have different characteristics from recurring orders. The present operating income statement is as follows: The following income statements have been prepared for sales at different capacities: It would appear that shutdown is desirable when the sale volume drops below 6,000 units per month, the point at which operating losses exceed the shutdown cost. (b) Book value and gain or loss on disposal — both involve depreciation and original cost (that is, sunk cost). Legal factors must also be considered if the special order is from a buyer who competes with regular customers. The differential amount of $750,000 for variable costs indicates variable costs are $750,000 higher for Alternative 1 than for Alternative 2. We just need to consider only … Consequently, management should consider all costs (fixed and variable, manufacturing and nonmanufacturing) in evaluating a long-term contract. The problem often arises in connection with the possible use of idle equipment, idle space and even idle labour. The following example illustrates the special order decisions: A manufacturing company produces 20,000 units by operating at 60% of the capacity and sells at a price of Rs 3000 per unit. Conse­quently, the unit price must be at least Rs 5.00 (3.50 opportunity cost + 1.50). The cost to manufacture 50,000 units of the part that will be needed has been estimated as follows: Costs that will be incurred under both alternatives are not relevant to the analysis. rust inhibitors, dust covers, security equipment, etc.). Further processing can be done at an additional cost of Rs 30 per unit and the final product can be sold at Rs 150 per unit. Any concerns regarding the order’s impact on regular customers might lead manage­ment to reject the order even if there is excess capacity. 7. Thus, opportunity costs are not transactions that occurred but that did not occur. Therefore, each order should be evaluated based on costs relevant to the situation and the goals of the business firm. Variable costs by products are: product A Rs 3,000. Increasing number of dispatches returned. It is because we do not need to prepare complete income statements for both scenarios to arrive at a conclusion. Differential analysis is useful in CVP analysis. When a company leaves a market for a while, its customers tend to forget about the company’s product. Decision again is to replace the old machinery and buy the new machinery. In this illustration, it has been assumed that sales of products A and C will not be increased after product B is dropped. For example, assume that a company can make a part that it has been purchasing at a unit cost of Rs 300. Also management should consider the investment in the training of its employees which would be lost in the event of temporary shutdown. The figure of net advantage of Rs 3, 00,000 can be arrived at in the following manner also: To take another example, suppose, a firm purchased some material for Rs 1, 00,000 some­time back which would realise Rs 50,000 if sold now. In other situations, costs do not differ between alternatives. At the very least, management should insist that a cost escalation clause be added to the purchase agreement, specifying that the selling price would increase to cover any cost increases and detailing the cost computation. 13. 10. When applying differential analysis to pricing decisions, each possible price for a given product represents an alternative course of action. Price determination should take into account the recovery of incremental (variable) costs caused by accepting the special order. Disclaimer 9. The minimum price on the special order and income statements are as follows: From the above analysis it is clear that the acceptance of the special order will increase the profit by Rs 10, 00,000. First, the count data needs to be normalized to account for differences in library sizes and RNA composition between samples. During the shutdown period, some employees will probably be lost (i.e., they may not wait until the facility is reopened to go back to work), in which case the investment in the training of those employees will be lost. That is, net income will be Rs 7,150 (Rs 9,750 –Rs 2,600). Answer (d) is incorrect because any price greater than Rs 5 will provide greater profits, in absolute amount, even though the gross profit percentage declines. Price which must be constantly lowered to maintain sales. Additional processing adds value to a product and increases its selling price above the amount for which it could be sold at split-off. These costs and revenues are relevant (note: differential means difference): Based on this differential analysis, Joanna Bennett should perform her tilling service rather than work at the stable.